Fine Environmental Services

Combustion Process

FES pictureThe regulatory requirement for combusting hazardous waste (as prescribed in the Hazardous Waste Incineration Directive (“HWID”)) is to thoroughly mix and maintain the temperature of the combustion mixture (waste, support fuel and air) at or above 850 °C in the case of waste streams containing less than 1% of organically bound chlorine, or above 1,100 °C for wastes containing more than this limit, for a minimum of 2 seconds.

These incineration conditions are considered critical to prevent the formation of highly toxic dioxins and furans in the off-gas. 

The conditions in the combustion chamber are highly turbulent, with waste streams being atomised by compressed air before being ignited in a large volume air stream delivered by the fans.

Temperatures in this area exceed 1,400 °C, before aqueous waste (or tempering water) is atomised at the bottom of the chamber, reducing the temperature of the waste stream gases to either 850 °C or 1,100 °C, depending on the waste type.

The waste gases then exit the combustion chamber and are directed to the flue-gas treatment units.

The structural strength of the combustion chamber is provided by a steel shell, lined with a layer of insulating bricks and a layer of refractory bricks, the latter providing a measure of protection from the erosion which could occur under the highly aggressive, turbulent conditions.